features of java

Features of Java | Java Tutorial

The primary goal of Java programming language development was to make it portable, simple, and secure. Apart from that, there are a number of excellent features that contribute to the language’s popularity.

Java was created with the primary goal of bringing portability and security to a computer language. Aside from these two major characteristics, there were numerous other characteristics that contributed to the final form of this outstanding language. These characteristics are:

Why is Java so popular?

Because of its excellent features, Java has become a popular and useful programming language. These features play an important role in contributing to the popularity of this language. Java BuzzWords are a set of Java features.

Java is officially described by Sun MicroSystems as having the following features:
  1. Simple and Familiar
  2. Compiled and Interpreted
  3. Platform Independent
  4. Portable
  5. Architectural Neutral
  6. Object-Oriented
  7. Robust
  8. Secure
  9. Distributed
  10. Multi-threaded and Interactive
  11. High Performance
  12. Dynamic and Extensible

1: Simple and Familiar

Java is simple and clear because it has a very clean and easy-to-understand coding style. It reduces complexity by avoiding the following complex and difficult features found in other languages such as C and C++. Java has an Automatic Garbage Collection, there is no need to remove unreferenced objects.

  • Java has removed several complicating features, such as pointers, overloading, etc that are rarely used.

2: Compiled and Interpreted

  • A computer language is typically compiled or interpreted. The power of compiled languages is combined with the flexibility of interpretable languages in Java.
  • Java compiler (javac) compiles the java source code into the bytecode.
  • The Java Virtual Machine (JVM) then executes this bytecode, which is portable and executable on a variety of operating systems.

3: Platform Independent

Java is platform-independent in comparison to other languages such as C, C++, and others, which are compiled into platform-specific machines, whereas Java is a write-once, run-anywhere language. The hardware or software environment in which a program runs is referred to as a platform.

  • There are two types of platforms software-based and hardware-based. Java provides a software-based platform.
  • In comparison to most other platforms, the Java platform is a software-based platform that runs on top of other hardware-based platforms. It consists of two parts:
java platform independent

4: Portable

  • The SE (Standard Edition) version of Java is referred to as “portable.” The portability is due to the architecture’s neutrality.
  • Java is portable because it allows you to move the Java bytecode from one platform to another. It does not necessitate any kind of implementation.
  • The source code in C/C++ may run slightly differently on different hardware platforms, but Java makes it easier to understand. Java bytecode can be run on any hardware that has a compliant JVM that can convert the bytecode to the machine’s specifications.
  • The size of primitive data types is machine-independent in Java, whereas it was machine-dependent in C/C++. As a result of these provisions, Java programs can run on a variety of platforms, including Windows, Unix, Mac, etc.

5: Architectural Neutral

  • This buzzword denotes that programs written for one platform or operating system is independent of other platforms or environments and can run on any other operating system without recompilation.
  • In other words, it’s based on the WORA (Write-once-run-anywhere) or WORE (Write-once-run-everywhere) approach.
  • Bytecode is not machine architecture dependent, and the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) can easily convert bytecode to machine-specific code.
  • When developing applets or downloading applications from the Internet, this feature comes in handy. Furthermore, because these applications must run on a variety of machines, this feature is essential in this case.
  • Because there are no implementation-dependent features in Java, such as the size of primitive types, it is architecture neutral.
  • In C programming, the int data type takes up two bytes in 32-bit architecture and four bytes in 64-bit architecture. In Java, however, it takes up 4 bytes of memory on both 32-bit and 64-bit architectures.

6: Object-Oriented

  • Java was one of the most popular programming languages. Java is an object-oriented programming language.
  • It is not considered pure object-oriented, however, because it supports primitive data types (like int, char, etc).
  • Encapsulation, Abstraction, and Inheritance are all features of Object-Oriented programming that Java supports.
  • In Java, almost everything is an object. Objects and classes contain all programs and data. Rather than ‘processes,’ ‘objects’ model Java. Java includes a modular set of classes organized into packages.

Following are some basic concepts of OOPs.

  • Object
  • Class
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism
  • Abstraction
  • Encapsulation

7: Robust

Java is robust because it can handle run-time errors, has automatic garbage collection and exception handling, and does not use the explicit pointer concept.

  • The memory management system in Java is quite good. It helps in the elimination of errors by checking the code both during compile and runtime.
  • Java is a garbage-collected language, which means that the JVM automatically deallocates memory blocks, so programmers don’t have to worry about manually deleting memory like they do in C/C++.
  • Exception handling is another feature of Java, which detects and eliminates runtime errors.
  • Java focuses on compile-time error checking and runtime error checking in order to eliminate error-prone code.

8: Secure

Java is always the first choice when it comes to security. With Java’s secure features, we can create virus-free and temper-free systems. Java programs always run in the Java runtime environment, with little interaction with the operating system, making them more secure.

  • Because malicious activities and viruses are a threat, security is a major concern for any programming language. Java allows you to use access modifiers to check memory access and ensure that no viruses get into your applet.
  • Java is a more secure language than C/C++ because it does not allow a programmer to create pointers explicitly. As a result, if we do not properly initialize a variable in Java, we will not be able to access it.
  • Programs run in a virtual machine sandbox, which is a separate environment that allows users to run their programs without affecting the operating system.
  • It has a bytecode verifier that scans the code fragments for any illegal code that would violate the access right.

9: Distributed

Java is a distributed language as well. Computer programs can be made to run over a network. For communicating over TCP/IP protocols, Java has a special class library. When compared to C/C++, creating network connections in Java is a breeze.

  • We can split a program into multiple parts in Java and store them on different computers. A Java programmer sitting on one machine can connect to another machine’s programs.
  • This Java feature allows for distributed programming, which is very useful when working on large projects. The concepts of RMI (Remote Method Invocation) and EJB (Enterprise JavaBeans) in Java help us achieve this (Enterprise JavaBeans).
  • Because it encourages users to create distributed applications, Java is distributed.
  • Java has a large library of classes for interacting with each other via TCP/IP protocols like HTTP and FTP, making network connections much easier than in C/C++.

10: Multi-threaded and Interactive

A thread is a separate execution path within a program that runs at the same time. Multithreaded refers to the ability to handle multiple tasks at the same time or to run multiple parts (functions) of the same programs in parallel.

  • Java’s code is broken down into smaller chunks, which Java executes in a logical and timely manner.
1: The main benefit of multithreading is that it allows for the most efficient use of resources.
2: Each thread does not take up memory. It has a shared memory space.
3: It is not necessary to wait for the application to complete one task before moving on to the next.
4: The cost of maintenance has decreased. It also saves you time.
5: It boosts productivity.

11: High Performance

Java is an interpreted language, it will never run as quickly as a compiled language such as C or C++. However, the use of a just-in-time compiler in Java allows for high performance.

  • With the use of a “JIT – Just In Time compiler,” Java provides high performance by compiling code on-demand, that is, only compiling the methods that are being called. This saves time and increases efficiency.
  • Because of its intermediate bytecode, Java’s performance is impressive for an interpreted language.
  • The Java architecture is also built in such a way that it reduces runtime overheads. The addition of multithreading to Java programs improves the overall speed of execution.
  • Because the Java compiler generates highly optimized bytecodes, the Java Virtual Machine can process them much faster.

12: Dynamic and Extensible

explain features of java

Java is dynamic and extensible, which means we can add classes and new methods to classes using OOPs, as well as create new classes using subclasses. This makes it easier for us to expand and even modify our own classes.

  • Java allows you to link new class libraries, methods, and objects dynamically. It is extremely dynamic because it can adapt to its changing surroundings.
  • Java also allows for the use of functions written in other languages, such as C and C++, in Java programs. These are referred to as “native methods.” At runtime, these methods are dynamically linked.

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JAVA 8-New Features

Some of the most important upgrades made as part of the Java 8 release are listed below.

  • Optional Classes, Lamda Expressions, and Streams, among other features, have increased productivity.
  • User-Friendliness
  • Polyglot programming has been improved. A polyglot is a program or script that is written in a way that it can be used in multiple programming languages and performs the same tasks in each. As a result, Java now supports this programming technique.

To know more about it please refer to the Introduction to Java | Java Tutorial | Java language.

  • We hope that this article will assist you in understanding all the Features of Java. We have concentrated on making a basic, meaningful, and easy-to-learn guide to the concepts. Still, if you have any problems regarding this, please post them in the comment section, and we will be glad to assist you.


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